Two Approaches to Planning
1. Management by Objective (MBO): provides focus and direction for formulating strategy to achieve specific organizational objectives
- Client/employer objectives
- Audience objectives
- What does the audience what to know and how can that message be tailored to audience self-interest?
- Media channels
- What is the appropriate media channel to reach the audience?
- Media channel objectives
- Sources and questions
- Communication strategies
- Essence of the message
- Nonverbal support
2. Strategic Planning Model: specific plan
Elements of a Program Plan
- 3 Traditional Situations often prompt a public relations program
- The organization must conduct a remedial program to overcome a problem
- Organization needs a certain one-time project to launch a new product or service
- Organization wants to reinforce an ongoing effort to preserve its reputation and public support
- An objective should be evaluated by asking
- Does it really address the situation?
- Is it realistic and achievable?
- Can success be measured in meaningful terms?
- Informational Objectives: designed primarily to expose audiences to information and to increase awareness of an issue, event, or product
- Motivational Objectives: Bottom-line oriented and based on clearly measurable results that can be quantified
- PR programs should be directed toward specific and defined audiences or publics
- Provides guidelines and key message themes for the overall program, and also offers a rationale for the planned actions and program components
- Key messages: What campaign wants to get across to the target audiences and the media
- The specific activities that put each strategy into operation and help accomplish objectives
- Program planning should take into account the environmental context of the situation and the time when key messages are most meaningful
- Budget is often divided into 2 categories
- Staff time
- Out-of-pocket expenses
- Generally, staff and administrative time take the majority of expenses